There has been much discussion about crop rotation. Most gardeners know about its usefulness as well as the negative impacts traditional monocultural systems have had; perpetuating disease and pests thereby decreasing yields.
Crop rotating is when numerous plant species are used in cooperation with each other. For example, growing a field of corn one year then following it the next year by beans. This adds biodiversity for the entire system and helps to accumulate beneficial biomass in the soil. It also discourages pests and diseases by introducing new plants that those pests have no use for thereby disrupting their ability to survive. Also, soils need the variety in root material and nutrients each plant provides as it grows and decays. Beneficial insects, pollinators, and worms also need the same diversity for their health and longevity. This spider ate many harmful squash bugs last year so I kept her around to do her thing. I hope to see her babies this year. I also had a couple of Preying Mantis’s last year and I have seen several of their eggs while prepping this season’s beds. Invite the healthy insects to keep the damaging insects under control. Crop rotation is a great way to bring variation into the ecosystem.
I have to put a plug in here about companion planting. It goes hand-in-hand with crop rotating in that it uses the beneficial traits of plants to increase yields. A good example of companion planting is when corn and cucumbers are grown together. Corn is tall whereas cucumbers are low and vining which means corn utilizes a lot of overhead space while cucumbers vine on the ground or grow up the corn stalks. Another example would be growing root crops like carrots with bushy or vining plants such as peas or beans since they have different spacial needs; one needs more room above ground and the other below ground. Companion planting also suggests plants that are attracted to each other and some that repel each other as well as plants that offer insect protection. There has been a number of books written about companion planting. One that I have used for many years is “Carrots Love Tomatoes,” written by Louise Riotte. There are a number of companion planting charts you can refer to online if you google it.
Rotating your garden beds takes just a little bit of planning and is not hard to do. If you have four or five beds, or even three, just assign them a number and rotate them each year. You can make it more complicated, like I do, by researching the needs of each plant and pairing beneficials together. But I have all winter to sit around waiting for spring so I don’t mind researching the varieties and their needs.
- Start with a list of plants you would like to grow.
- Then determine how many of each plant you need.
- Referring to the seed packet, follow their recommended spacing between plants to help define how much space you will need to allow for that particular variety.
- Now, look to the companion planting chart to see what can be grown together.
- Next, draw a map of your garden beds. I like to use graph paper where each square can equal 1 square foot, but it is easy enough to use plain paper.
- Most likely, your beds do not move from year to year so label each one: 1, 2, 3, and so on or any naming system that suits your fancy.
- You’ll need to keep your garden map for future reference, so date it. Start a garden journal to help you track your rotations. Journals are also a great way to track the varieties that you chose, which were successful, and which plants were dismal. This is my Microsoft Word Garden Journal for this season.
I hope this was helpful. Let me know if you have any questions or suggestions. I love learning new things and many of you have unique ideas that can benefit others so please share.
Barbara Pleasant, Maintain Healthy Soil with Crop Rotation, February/March 2010, accessed March 20, 2019, https://www.motherearthnews.com/organic-gardening/gardening-techniques/healthy-soil-crop-rotation-zmaz10fmzraw